100 people who will vomit in the next few minutes will have the following reasons. A man at number 14 sits on a rollercoaster train and screams, arms raised high, number 32 praises a delicious egg salad, number 77 frantically examines a strip of pregnancy test, number 100 reads in the annotation to the drug: "it can cause nausea and vomiting."
How does vomiting occur?
The vomiting mechanism is activated according to a clear plan. Millions of receptors test the contents of our stomach, examine the blood and process signals from the brain. Any information is accumulated by a network of nerve fibers and sent to the brain, which, in turn, analyzes and weighs the data. If too many alarms are received, the question arises of making a decision: give the go-ahead for vomiting or postpone. The brain gives command to the muscles that begin or do not begin to work.
Observing 100 people on x-ray equipment during vomiting, you can capture the same picture 100 times. A worried brain activates the area in which the vomiting center is located. We turn pale, because there is an outflow of blood into the abdominal cavity, the pressure decreases and the pulse decreases. And at the end, the correct signal of the oncoming state appears - salivation. Seconds before vomiting occurs, saliva is produced in large quantities in order to protect our teeth from the acidic contents of our stomach.
The command is received, and our stomach and small intestine begin to make nerve impulses in the opposite direction to push out the contents. It is at this point that most people intuitively begin to feel that they urgently need to find a toilet or sink.
An empty stomach is not a guarantee that there will be no vomiting, because vomit can come from the cavity of the small intestine. The stomach opens its doors to accept the contents of the small intestine, designed to evacuate back out.
The lungs take a deeper than usual breath and the airways block. The stomach and sphincter at the border with the esophagus relax. The diaphragm and abdominal wall begin to crush from the bottom (on the principle of a tube with toothpaste). The stomach directs its contents towards the esophagus. Push - and all out!
You should not be afraid of vomiting, because after attacks of nausea pass into vomiting, in addition to alleviating the general condition, toxins will also be eliminated from the body.
Causes of Nausea and Vomiting
In a biological sense, vomiting is digestive defense getting into it or the formation of toxic or other harmful substances in it. The ability to vomit in representatives of the animal world was originally conceived by nature. Our colleagues in this regard are monkeys, dogs, cats, pigs, fish and even birds. Not capable of the act of vomiting mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits and horses. The fact is that they have a very thin and narrow esophagus.
Do not be afraid of vomiting, the ability to this phenomenon in a person is more a reason for joy than for concern.
In between vomiting, one can speculate. Egg salad at No. 32 was well absorbed before it was thrown out by the stomach. In the vomit, you can notice a couple of pieces of eggs, legumes, pasta horns. Relieved, No. 32 thinks: “Maybe he chewed poorly?”. In a second, with a new wave, a mixture of a more uniform consistency spills out.
If the vomit contains identifiable pieces of food, it is highly likely that the food was not taken by the stomach before it reached the small intestine. The more uniform, bitter or yellow the mass, the more likely it is that the small intestine rejected the food.
The nature of the vomiting can also provide useful information. If vomiting is sudden and profuse, the cause is most likely virusin the gastrointestinal tract. In case of poisoning spoiled foods or alcohol vomit profusely, but shortly before the first shocks you can feel the urge to nausea. The feeling of nausea already indicates that the food did not do us any good.
When vomiting after the ride roller coaster triggers processes similar to seasickness. The mechanism of development of vomiting in motion sickness today is explained by the following: if the information from the eyes does not coincide with that received from the balance organ from the inner ear, the brain cannot figure out what is going wrong and reacts with vomiting.
If in a train or a car we read a book, the eye communicates information: “no movement occurs,” while the balance organ transmits: “movement is present.” A similar effect is achieved when during movement we observe tree trunks flickering past us. If we simultaneously move our head, it seems that the trunks of trees are slipping past us at a faster speed than we are moving ourselves.
Strong emotions can also cause nausea. stress or fear. Every day, stress hormones are synthesized in our body - a kind of shock absorbers that help to be on hand in case of a stressful situation. If the situation is unusual and the stress is very strong, the brain sends special signals, and an increased dose of stress hormones enters the bloodstream.
Stress hormones are synthesized not only in the cells of the brain, but also in the cells of the gastrointestinal tract. If intestinal cells record high levels of stress hormones, this is a good reason to respond to diarrhea, nausea, or vomiting.
In case the brain experiences stress, the food lump goes out to save energy on its digestion and to save resources in case of need to "hold the defense". Under stress experienced by the intestines, the food lump is brought out because it is poisoned or the conditions for digestion are extremely unfavorable. In both cases, the ability to free oneself from unacceptable food is an advantage of our body. People prone to one of these manifestations against the backdrop of stress have an attentive digestive apparatus that is always ready to help.
Which helps with nausea. How to treat vomiting
- With motion sickness, motion sickness is necessary look forward towards the horizon - the method of synchronizing information coming from the eyes and the organ of balance will work.
- It's good to listen to music on headphones, lie on your side or try relaxation techniques. A possible explanation for the relief may be the calming effect of these actions. The safer we feel, the less we contribute to the vibrant activity of the emergency alert system in the brain.
- Eat figs. There are data from various studies that indicate the effectiveness of figs in the fight against nausea. It contains substances that block the vomiting centers of the brain and vomiting, respectively. Preference should not be given to fig-flavored candies, but to products containing its components.
- Vomiting medication They have various mechanisms of action: they can block the receptors of the vomiting centers (an action similar to figs), reduce the sensitivity of nerve cells in the stomach and intestines to suppress alarm signals. Medications that drown out distress signals act just like allergy medications. Both of them suppress the synthesis of the signaling substance, histamine.
- Point P6! Will help you acupuncturewhich is recognized as official medicine. The method has been reviewed in 40 studies on vomiting and nausea. We do not know why and how, but P6 works. The magic point is 2-3 fingers below the wrist joint and exactly in the center between the two convex ligaments of the forearm. If there is no acupuncture specialist nearby, you can try to slightly push the point yourself and massage it slightly - the condition will improve.
The listed methods are not universal. Remedies such as figs, medications, or the P6 point primarily help with the psychogenic nature of vomiting.
Vomiting is not a punishment from the stomach. Such an unpleasant reaction actually turns into a benefit for the body and a sign indicating that the brain and intestines protect us to the last and are always ready to sacrifice ourselves in order to maintain a favorable internal environment and harmonious work of the body. Nausea and vomiting are guidelines for the future: what is harmful to us and what is beneficial to us. Think about it, and you will realize that this is true.
Why is there vomiting?
There are many reasons for the urge to reflexively empty the upper gastrointestinal tract by triggering the “antiperistaltic” mechanism. Among the most common:
- various infectious pathologies,
- motion sickness in transport,
- metabolic disorders
- gastrointestinal tract diseases
- traumatic brain injuries
- mental disorders,
- eating disorders
- toxicosis during pregnancy,
- heat or sunstroke,
- allergic reactions
- jumps in blood pressure,
- strong emotional experiences, etc.
If the root cause is toxic poisoning, then vomiting is a boon. It makes it possible to free the body from hazardous substances, toxic products, and provides relief. In such a situation, patients often deliberately induce vomiting by any available means.
But not with any poisoning this can be done. For example, if a person swallows acid or alkali, vomiting will lead to even greater damage to the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, if poisoning is suspected, it is better to wait for the ambulance crew to arrive before inducing vomiting.
Sometimes vomiting is a symptom of a serious illness or injury that requires hospitalization, surgical treatment, etc. For example, nausea and vomiting often accompany:
- brain concussion,
- skull fractures,
- neoplasms of the brain, etc.
Nausea, vomiting can accompany many pathologies of the digestive system, including:
- intestinal obstruction,
- gastroesophageal reflux disease,
- peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum, etc.
In addition to interviewing and examining a doctor, in order to find out the reasons and diagnose pathologies, an additional examination may be required using laboratory tests, ultrasound and other studies.
How to stop vomiting and nausea: nutrition, drinking regimen, etc.
If vomiting begins against a background of digestive disturbance, gastroenteritis, pregnancy, etc., in order to prevent dangerous dehydration and accelerate recovery, it is important to get rid of nausea and stop stomach cramps. 5 simple tips will help.
4. Take fluids to prevent dehydration
If the human body loses ¼ of the fluid, death occurs.
Therefore, after the gastrointestinal tract has rested for 15 to 20 minutes, if the person has not vomited again, you can start drinking in small sips, in small portions, every 5-10 minutes:
- water, it is possible mineral without gas (alkaline),
- sports drinks
- weak tea, you can with ginger,
- electrolyte drinks with a high content of potassium and sodium salts.
You can prepare a rehydration solution yourself by mixing a liter of pure boiled water, 1 tbsp. l sugar, 1 tsp. salt and ½ tsp soda.
The following fluids should be avoided:
- carbonated drinks,
- sour fresh juices and other drinks,
You do not need to take a lot of liquid at once, the number of sips should be increased gradually, with each subsequent dose.
If, after trying to take a sip of water, vomiting starts again, wait another quarter hour and try to dissolve ice (frozen water, rehydration solution, tea, etc.) in your mouth. So the body will receive the necessary portion of fluid, and nausea will recede due to irritation of the receptors located on the tongue.
Electrolyte drinks, rehydration solution are not recommended for patients with diabetes mellitus, renal failure, an excess of potassium in the body.
5. Eat a strict diet
If after taking fluids vomiting does not start, after a while you can start to take a little food. You can eat:
- peppermint candy
- a piece of candied ginger,
- natural yogurt without sugar and other additives,
- baked apple,
- rice porridge on the water,
- banana etc.
- fatty foods
- sour taste food
- fried, smoked food.
It will be possible to return to normal nutrition only after the vomiting has finally stopped, bouts of nausea will be absent for a couple of days. If, when you try to expand a strict diet, unpleasant symptoms return, you should consult a doctor.
Medicines used to treat vomiting
Sometimes vomiting cannot be stopped without the use of drugs. If you cannot stop vomiting with the help of the tips described above, consult a specialist. Depending on the reasons, the degree of dehydration, the clinical picture, the doctor may decide on the appointment of rehydration therapy, prescribe additional medications.
- If vomiting begins during motion sickness during a sea trip or car trip, in an airplane, special anticholinergics, dopamine receptor blockers will help.
- To stop vomiting during chemotherapy or certain medications, your doctor may recommend antipsychotics or serotonin receptor blockers.
What you need to know
This is a reflex mechanism: protects the body from poisoning, absorption of toxic compounds into the blood. With constant nausea, the state of health worsens. It is not a disease, it serves as a symptom that has a different nature. In this case, a person can feel:
- Feeling nauseous
- Severe weakness
- Discomfort in the abdomen,
- Diarrhea is possible
- Increased salivation,
- Sour taste in the oral cavity,
If involuntary ejection of the contents of the stomach was repeated one or two times, after nausea a feeling of relief came, the body became better, then the cause may be a spoiled product. Repeated, severe vomiting is a sign of pathology. A feeling of nausea may occur if there is:
- Digestive system disease. Inflammatory processes in the gallbladder (cholecystitis), pancreas (pancreatitis), duodenal ulcer, gastritis, lead to disruption of the normal functioning of the digestive processes.
- Diseases associated with mental disorders, stress. Infectious infection of the central nervous system (meningitis, encephalitis).
- Violation of the vestibular apparatus (motion sickness). A person is sick in transport, with a sharp change in body position.
- Toxicosis in the first trimester of a pregnant woman, nausea in the later stages is possible.
Very persistent vomiting is very dangerous. Possible complications in the form of dehydration, fainting. In children, depletion and loss of water occurs faster than in an adult. Pay attention to the contents that are discharged from the stomach. The presence of bile, blood clots indicate serious problems, urgent medical intervention is required. To determine the source of nausea, it is necessary to undergo an examination with a doctor, take tests to make a diagnosis.
The feeling of nausea and the urge to vomit provoke various factors.To ease vomiting, do the following:
- After vomiting, rinse your mouth well, remove the leftover mass, brush your teeth with mint paste,
- It’s important to drink water to avoid dehydration,
- Observe bed rest. Lying down, a person relaxes, it calms the nervous system, allows you to restrain urge,
- It is recommended to limit physical activity until the condition improves,
- If you want to eat, eat diet foods in small portions. It’s better not to eat for 3 hours, the stomach should recover, especially after poisoning,
- With frequent vomiting, you should drink rehydrating drugs,
- A piece of ice, peppermint candy, mineral water help from vomiting,
- Probiotics can be taken to improve intestinal motility
- Foreign odors can cause nausea. Ventilate the room, fresh air improves blood circulation, saturates the body with oxygen.
At home, there are many ways to deal with vomiting. It is important to know what is the reason for the deterioration of well-being.
Help with food poisoning. In this case, it is not recommended to stop the rhinestone. With the allocated masses undigested food, harmful compounds are excreted. After it is worth doing gastric lavage with a weak infusion of potassium permanganate, drink water. If the poisoning is accompanied by eruptions of the stomach without stopping, fever, dizziness, then call a doctor.
Activated carbon tablets are used for food poisoning. The drug prevents the absorption of toxic substances from the stomach, thereby neutralizing them. Activated charcoal can be taken during pregnancy and in childhood, if there are no allergic reactions to the drug. Mineral poisoning restores the water-salt balance in the body.
Treatment for gastrointestinal infections
If the cause of the malaise is pathogens, then immediately do the gastric lavage. Thus, most of the pathogenic bacteria are removed from the body. Then take antiemetics.
Cerucal is an effective drug in the fight against nausea and pain in inflammatory processes of the stomach. If there is blood in the excreted masses, bile urgently needs to call a doctor. This may indicate exacerbation of chronic diseases of the organs of the stomach or complications of the disease.
Treatment of nausea in children at home
Baby vomiting is usually caused by food poisoning, overeating, stressful situations. It is important for an adult to constantly monitor the condition of the child. If the urge increases, the baby becomes sluggish, the temperature rises, urgently call a doctor or go to the hospital.
To help your child stop vomiting, try these tips:
- Rinse the stomach with plenty of warm water (a teenager can be washed with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or give activated charcoal),
- It’s necessary to calm the baby, put him to bed,
- At a temperature give an antipyretic,
- Wash your baby’s face with cool water,
- After vomiting, it is necessary to give liquid, you can steal a child's chamomile pharmacy (from 0 years). Chamomile has antiseptic properties, soothes the stomach,
- To replenish the physiological loss of fluid, you must take rehydrating drugs (Humana Electrolyte, Regidron),
- If the eruption of the stomach does not stop, the child feels worse, you need to see a doctor.
Carefully carry out the treatment of the baby. In a child's body, susceptibility is higher than in an adult. To achieve a positive result and recovery of the crumbs, consult a pediatrician. Use the medicine only with the permission of the doctor.
Alternative methods of treatment
At home, it is convenient to use alternative methods of therapy. To alleviate well-being, suppress a feeling of nausea will help:
- Green tea with lemon. Drink warm tea after vomiting. Tones up the body, helps prevent nausea, restores digestion.
- Ginger root. To make the nausea go away, you can put a small piece of ginger on the tongue or make tea with chopped root. A drink with ginger is a home assistant in the fight against ill health. It is a choleretic, antispasmodic. Helps to eliminate nausea, calm the stomach, relieve cramps.
- Chamomile flowers. The infusion of pharmacy chamomile is a good antiseptic. In addition, drinking with a medicinal plant has a calming, anti-inflammatory effect on the stomach.
- Potato juice. A tablespoon of raw potato juice can stop vomiting. Starch, which is part of the potato, quickly envelops the walls of the stomach, thereby protecting the body from harmful compounds.
- Peppermint. Tea with peppermint leaves helps with nausea.
- Baking soda. A glass of water with the addition of a teaspoon of soda helps with indomitable vomiting, diarrhea, and nausea.
This method will help to improve well-being and improve health, but is not a therapy for serious diseases. The source of the disease can be cured in conjunction with medications.
When to see a doctor urgently
If you ignore this symptom and feeling unwell, then this will lead to undesirable consequences for health. Signs that are an alarming sign, which require complex treatment:
- With severe pain in the abdomen,
- The condition does not improve, nausea does not go away,
- Excreted masses with bile, bloody impregnations,
- Nausea accompanied by diarrhea
- The stomach doesn’t take food, frequent vomiting has opened,
- High body temperature lasts all day, cramps appear,
- Fainting state
- The child does not stop profuse vomiting.
It is necessary to treat the stomach after diagnosing the disease and consulting a doctor. Respond to symptoms in a timely manner to help keep you healthy.