Useful Tips

How to Become a Farmer: Livestock Business


If you want to become a farmer who breeds a bird, you must decide what kind of bird you want to grow. Another question is where do you live, as most farmers live in the eastern United States and California. Typically, farmers breed one species of bird, such as chickens, turkeys, geese or ducks. More than half of poultry farms breed chickens like broilers. The other two types of poultry farms breed turkeys and chicken for eggs. Some farms raise chickens, laying hens and producers. When you decide what kind of farmer you want to become, you need to find a job on the farm that deals specifically with the poultry industry that interests you. In this article you will find a description of the responsibilities for each type of poultry farm.

Farm business development

The farm business in Russia, in particular animal husbandry, is gaining more and more popularity and development over the years due to the following factors:

  • the presence of government programs that, subject to certain conditions by farmers, in order to support newly established farms and national producers, provide subsidies, tax benefits, grants, initial capital, allocate land for farming,
  • rising food prices, which increases the profit of farmers,
  • food products produced by farms, namely meat, milk, eggs, cheese, honey, cottage cheese, are always in demand in the markets and have their own customer base, as they provide basic consumer needs,
  • restriction of access to the market for products of foreign suppliers and manufacturers - national manufacturers, in turn, do not experience such restrictions,
  • a wide range of types of economic activity, the emergence and development of new species (for example, ostrich breeding farms),
  • the products of a national producer inspire confidence among consumers and are in demand,
  • the possibility of obtaining a permanent customer base and markets for products.


The farm is divided into 2 main sectors:

  • agriculture (cultivation of various types of crops: rice, wheat, barley, etc.),
  • animal husbandry.

Animal breeding as a business includes the following sub-sectors:

  • pig breeding
  • cattle breeding (cattle breeding),
  • sheep breeding,
  • poultry farming
  • bee breeding,
  • horse breeding
  • Ostrich breeding
  • reindeer husbandry
  • rabbit breeding,
  • fur farming and others.

The most developed pigs, poultry, sheep and cattle.

Cattle breeding meets the needs of the population in milk and meat, beef and veal are of high quality and high cost.

Poultry farming provides the market with meat and eggs, and poultry meat (turkeys, chickens, ducks, indole) is more in demand than beef and pork, due to the lower cost of meat and the absence of difficulties in breeding poultry on farms. Chicken meat is the most demanded meat in the markets; breeding chickens is a promising and profitable type of activity.

Pig production is a rapidly developing type of economic activity. Pork is the second most demanded meat in the markets, after chicken, this meat is cheaper than beef and has high quality, nutrition and calorie content.

Sheep breeding for its development requires the presence of a large number of pastures and provides markets not only with meat and milk, but also with wool.

Overview of activities: which business is the most profitable?

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The basic rules that you must follow if you decide to engage in pig farming

1. Decide on the location of the farm, taking into account: established standards for proximity to settlements, the minimum required farm area, distance from water sources.

2. Prepare the necessary documents for the signature of the administration. Please check under what conditions it is possible to receive state subsidies, benefits, etc.

3. Examine the market structure, namely the supply and demand for pig meat and fat in the markets in your area. As a rule, lean and lean pork, fat with a meat layer (loin) have the greatest demand.

4. Prepare a business plan that, when calculating financial expenses, will show the effectiveness of pig breeding and potential profit. Financial expenses include the following costs:

  • buying pigs
  • construction or rental of premises,
  • purchase of inventory and equipment,
  • salary to staff
  • stern,
  • payment for veterinarian services, vaccinations, etc.

Also, the plan needs to assess the possible risks of the enterprise and indicate the stages of the project with actions at each stage.

5. Build pigsties, sheds, purchase the necessary inventory and equipment, feed.

6. Hire qualified personnel (livestock, handymen, pig farmers, etc.).

7. Much attention should be paid to the selection of pig breeds. Breeds of pigs are specially bred for the production of:

Breeds for the production of meat and bacon received the greatest demand, because meat brings more income than lard. Females and males must be purchased from different suppliers in order to prevent genetic mutations in the offspring.

8. Be sure to periodically disinfect pigsties, equipment, destroy rodents, provide regular vaccinations and examinations of offspring and adults by a veterinarian.

But do not wait for instant results, because the pig farm pays off in about 2-3 years. Also successful is the combination of growing potatoes, corn, etc. with raising pigs, because the cost of feed in this case is reduced, the organization of its production of meat and sausage products and lard is also profitable (for example, you can organize a smokehouse of meat and lard).

Poultry farming as a business

Breeding poultry as a business, especially chickens and turkeys, requires lower financial costs than, for example, pig farming, since poultry is less whimsical, but brings a steady income, because poultry is very popular due to its low cost, diet, low calorie content.

Before you start poultry farming, draw up a business plan that will help you calculate the possible profit and the time after which it will be received, as well as financial costs (for the purchase of young animals, feed, vaccinations, territory rental, building premises, equipment, etc.) existing risks.

How to become a poultry farmer from scratch?

Consider the main factors that must be considered if you decide to engage in breeding birds.

1. The choice of breed depends on the direction of your farm. Breeds of chickens are:

  • meat production (cornish, red white-tailed),
  • for the production of eggs (leggorn, Russian whites, Pavlovsk, minor),
  • for the production of eggs and meat (Loman Brown, Moscow black, Kuchin).

It is most profitable to buy chicken breeds that are adapted for the production of both eggs and meat.

2. Having your own garden reduces the cost of feed for birds; in the spring-summer period, chickens can and should be grazed in the garden.

3. To obtain high-quality home-made meat, special attention should be paid to bird food. So, the diet of chickens should include in addition to compound feed: dandelions, nettles, carrots, pumpkin, potatoes, beets and other vegetables and herbs.

4. The premises for chickens should be equipped with everything necessary: ​​feeders, drinking bowls, thermometers, instruments for measuring the humidity of the room. Each breed has its own characteristics. So, egg breeds need ventilation, specially equipped perches, free space, good lighting (the room should be lit from 6 am to 9 pm, lighting failure is stress for the bird and its egg production is reduced or completely stopped) and thermal insulation.

5. Purchase and equipment of an incubator will help to save on young animals, laid eggs laid on a laying hen are laid in an incubator, which must be equipped with a thermometer. If the incubator is the simplest and not automatic, the eggs are turned over manually (3 times a day). From 60 eggs laid in the incubator, you can get from 45 or more chickens.

6. Purchased young animals should be vaccinated and given antibiotics to prevent possible diseases.

7. Regular disinfection of premises should be carried out; if a disease is suspected, isolate sick birds to be slaughtered, invite a veterinarian to make a final diagnosis, and vaccinate.

Birds can also be raised in old sheds, which only need to be equipped with everything necessary, a personal plot or a garden will be enough. Breeding chickens is the most popular type of poultry farming, chickens are unpretentious in feeding and care, have high egg production and, when properly maintained, provide valuable and sought-after meat.

Breeding cattle

So what does it take to become a cattle farmer? Before dealing directly with the breeding itself, draw up a detailed business plan, which should include yourself:

  • planned production volumes,
  • production part (expenses for the purchase of feed),
  • marketing part (advertising, product prices),
  • organizational part (information about suppliers, purchasers, staff),
  • risk assessment
  • financial part (sources of financial support, planned income).

Next, determine the location of the farm, given that it should be remote from settlements, and a room for livestock. It is also necessary to determine the purpose of breeding animals:

  • breeding of young individuals for sale,
  • meat supply
  • milk supply
  • meat and milk supply,
  • processing animal skins,
  • production of dairy products (cheese, sour cream, cottage cheese),
  • production of meat products (sausage products).

The next step will be to go around all authorities, prepare documentation and obtain permits (for construction on sites, etc.).

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One of the most important aspects of organizing livestock breeding as a business is livestock purchase. What to consider:

  • selection and purchase is best carried out with the participation of an experienced veterinarian, livestock breeder,
  • The main meat breeds of cows: Hereford, Charolese, Limousine, Salers, Kalmyk, Kazakh white-headed and others. Dairy breeds: black-motley, red steppe, Yaroslavl, Kholmogorsk,
  • a healthy dairy cow, which will produce a large amount of milk, has a barrel-shaped stomach, a long head, small horns, strong muscles, special attention should be paid to the udder of the cow. The udder of the cow should be large, the skin elastic, the shape of the udder cup-like. Cows with a round udder will give little milk. When buying, be sure to milk the cow, while hardening should not be felt in the udder, it should be soft and supple. A healthy cow has a clear view, there is no cough, the gait is hard and light, the narrow back and sagging back are considered to be shortcomings,
  • read the documents on the animal, the vaccination card.

Cows need to be provided with pasture, fodder must be purchased, hay must be prepared for the winter, regular disinfection of cows and vaccinations is mandatory, and premises for slaughterhouses must also be equipped.

How to become a successful farmer?

In order to become a successful farmer, it should be borne in mind that farming does not involve instant profit, it requires significant financial costs. Livestock farming is one of the most risky types of business, as there is always a risk of epidemics, natural disasters that can lead to animal pestilence, loss of farm and bankruptcy of farmers.

Keep in mind that the production of quality products is only the first stage. The second stage is its implementation. You can find markets, or you can open your own stores, which will generate income, but will also require additional costs for the rental of premises, personnel, equipment, etc.

A farm in Russia receives state support and brings high income to businessmen, but it also requires large investments and time, as well as a detailed business plan. The main livestock industries in Russia and around the world are pig breeding, poultry farming and cattle breeding, as their products are always in high demand, both on national and foreign markets.

Poultry breeding

Many breed canaries to enjoy beautiful rolling trills. Mostly cenars sing in the spring. Females sing less melodically.

Parrots are also very popular. Among parrots, the most common breed are budgies. They can be taught to speak. This is a very sociable and noisy bird, which must be released to fly. The parrot needs attention and suffers from a lack of communication.

Lovebirds parrots look unusually, they are also unpretentious in leaving, but you can’t teach them how to talk. They are called lovebirds because these parrots are capable of creating one pair for life, therefore, lovebirds are kept in pairs.

The small bright birds of the amadina also attract attention.

Poultry breeding

To keep a bird at home, you need a rectangular or square cage (and for a parrot more than for a canary), feeders, a bathing bowl, a drinking bowl, several wooden poles, because birds like to fly from a pole to a pole inside the cage. Experienced breeders recommend placing the cage in a well-lit place, where there are no drafts and sun, and maintains an average comfortable temperature. It is necessary to ensure that there is always clean water in the cage for drinking. At night, it is recommended to shelter the bird so that it does not wake up early from its singing in the morning.

Do not forget that now very often there is an allergy to fluff, feathers and droppings of birds.

Feeding is also not difficult. In a specialized store, food for canaries or parrots is purchased. You can also give vitamin supplements, vegetables and fruits: cabbage, carrots, apples, peppers, lettuce, dandelion leaves, celery, which are attached between the rods of the cell near the heart.

If you want a canary to please you with melodious singing, then you should not keep a canary and a parrot in the same room. A canary can begin to imitate a parrot and stop singing. Canaries are very fond of children, melancholy natures, pensioners are happy to give themselves beautiful vocal singers! Feathered pets are very cheerful and cheerful creatures that literally brighten up the life of their owners. By the way, for the breeding of poultry at home, the TGB incubator helps very well.

But do not forget that each pet requires proper care, care and affection, that any even the smallest bird is a big responsibility.

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Milestones of a poultry breeding business plan

  • The choice of direction.In this section, you should conduct a detailed analysis of a business idea, determine its profitability and level of competition,
  • Financial section. Here, it is required to calculate in detail all the costs of the project and determine the necessary amount of investment,
  • Organizational matters (business registration, area rental, poultry house improvement, young stock acquisition),
  • Profit and payback periods for poultry breeding business.

Having drawn up a detailed poultry business plan, proceed to the gradual implementation of its items.

Choose a direction

Almost all the villagers are engaged in breeding and rearing poultry at home. As a rule, most villagers do this for themselves, so to speak, to feed their families. Not everyone thinks about mass growing and raising poultry on an industrial scale, but in vain, this business can bring a good, stable income.

First of all, you need to choose a direction. Which bird is most profitable to grow? It is rather difficult to answer this question, in any field there are pros and cons. For beginner farmers, we recommend breeding unpretentious bird species, for example, raising turkeys at home.

The most popular types of birds for breeding at home:

  1. Chicken (laying hens, broilers),
  2. Ducks and geese,
  3. Turkeys
  4. Quail and pheasant

Before deciding on a direction, analyze demand and competition. In addition, it is also necessary to study in detail the features of breeding, growing and keeping of birds. As a result, you can choose to breed a standard bird (duck, chicken) or try your hand in a more difficult direction and start breeding quails at home.

Having decided on the direction, proceed to the next step - registration of your business.

Documents and permits for opening a poultry farm

To open a poultry farm, you will need to register and choose the substantive form of activity, as well as OKVED codes. In addition, it is necessary to obtain quality certificates and permits for the sale of products from the sanitary-epidemiological and veterinary services.

The process of registering a farm can be delayed, so I recommend that you entrust the collection and execution of all documents to an experienced lawyer.

Territory rental

In the countryside there is a lot of empty space that can be rented for mere pennies. I do not recommend that you, at the initial stage, acquire a place for a future poultry farm, not the fact that the chosen direction will be successful, therefore it is more advisable to rent the necessary area.

Depending on the expected volumes of the future poultry farm and the conditions of keeping birds, choose the appropriate land. For example, for breeding pheasants at home, you will need to build a large aviary so that the birds learn to fly freely.

There are two ways to keep poultry: cage and walking

  1. In the first case, equip a room connected to all communications, in which cages for keeping birds at home will be placed. But it is worthwhile to understand that this method is more suitable for keeping and growing broilers.
  2. The second option for keeping poultry is a corral equipment where birds can graze freely. In this case, it will be necessary to rent a much larger area for raising birds in free conditions.

Home Improvement

In any case, you will have to equip the house in order to keep the birds in comfortable conditions at night and cold. You can build and equip the house yourself with your own hands, there is nothing difficult in this, this is a rather primitive design.

In this video you can see in more detail how to quickly build a house with your own hands.

Purchase of young animals for a poultry farm

Naturally, in order to open a poultry farm you should purchase young animals for growing and eggs for breeding poultry at home. It is most profitable to buy young chicks and eggs on specialized farms. Before buying, decide on the direction, do not forget that there are breeds of birds bred specifically for keeping and slaughtering for meat, as well as breeds that are kept and bred to receive and sell eggs.

In addition to chicks, you should also purchase an incubator for further breeding and replenishing the number of birds on the farm.

Hired staff

It will be quite difficult to independently service even a small poultry farm. It is required not only to feed, water the birds, but also to graze and constantly clean the house. Also, someone should sell products. In general, it will be quite difficult for one person to control and manage everything, so helpers should be hired.

In rural areas, there will be many people who want to work on the farm. Choose experienced, responsible, disciplined employees. The main requirement for candidates is a love for animals, because people who are friendly to our smaller brothers will be able to properly care for them.

Profit from bird breeding business

Your income will depend on the chosen direction, demand and competition in the agricultural sector.

  • The eggs. If you breed birds and sell eggs, then on average out of 100 laying hens you can get about 30,000 eggs a year. The cost of a dozen eggs, on average, 50 rubles. Thus, in a year, only selling eggs, you will receive about 150,000 rubles.
  • Meat. Typically, most farmers keep poultry for slaughter for meat. The cost of carcasses of chicken, turkey or duck in the market is quite large, so this business is quite cost-effective.
  • Feathers and droppings. Do not be surprised, even bird droppings can be sold. It is in demand among summer residents, because this is the best fertilizer. What sways feathers, then duck, for example, make pillows and blankets.

Product sales

It can be concluded that poultry farming as a home business is a very promising area of ​​activity that promises a stable income and high profit. I wish you success in all endeavors.

I liked the idea of ​​a poultry growing business, then we recommend reading how to breed budgies in your own city apartment.