Archery - a sport in which archery is carried out with arrows at accuracy or range. The winner is the athlete or team that will score more points according to the rules of the competition. Olympic sport since 1900.
What are needed
The training program in specialized circles and courses involves exercises on General Physical Training and Special Physical Training.
At the beginning of training, much attention is paid to the correct movements before the shot and the athlete's posture, scrupulousness in this matter is extremely important until the correct technique is finalized to automatism.
In addition to physical and technical exercises, practiced classes on simulators and with straps.
The frequency of lessons and classes is variable. Lesson required for minimum height 3 times a week. To maintain skills at the same level, they train 2 times a week. But in order to achieve the greatest success in the shortest possible time and increase the effectiveness of the classes, training should be done daily, and preferably several times a day. Every 4-5 days you can afford one day off.
Photo 1. Training in archery. They take place in a special gym equipped with targets.
The need to conduct lessons with a trainer
Archery is enough rare in everyday life as a sport. Often this is a hobby for people of a certain character and hobbies (for example, for fans of fantasy or puritans), and they are engaged in archery exclusively for themselves. For this reason, no trainer is required., and people can find all the necessary information on the Internet.
Important! There is no denying the fact that trainings are necessary, if you want to learn archery quickly and correctly or consider bow your calling and want to become a professional athlete.
Shooting is taught in special sections. This form of teaching can be called courses, but this is not a two-week circle where people learn to shoot from archery, but a full-fledged section in which people work, prepare and explain all the technical details of this art.
Private archery lessons, then the set of exercises and the training program are variable. However, this practice is also widespread.
Photo 2. Personal training in archery with a trainer. Instructor shows how to hold a weapon.
Such events involve demonstration performance of a professional shooterwhere he demonstrates his skill and high class in this art, which amazes the audience. This part is more designed to attract a new audience.
After the performance, the master spends workshop for experienced archers, it can be closed, where only invited specialists are present, or open, in which the presence of spectators and the participation of people who paid for attending the class are allowed.
At similar workshops specialists can exchange experience, learn some of the special tricks of the art of shooting and improve their skills, and amateurs will see what a person with excellent bow skills is capable of.
Activities for beginners
At the initial acquaintance with the art of shooting, it is recommended to repeat classes three times a week. Then you can train more often.
On first the training of future archers is introduced to the basic principles and rules of shooting, as well as special exercises (for example, Bandage Martens And so on).
And they give homework for the next workout.
Second training begins after checking homework. Here begins training in exercises with a rubber bandage, with which the student does 50–70 “shots”.
On third training is added to the previous set of exercises practice with a bow simulator.
Only after the successful completion of all previous operations can the student start practicing bow shooting with targets and learning how to handle onions.
The organization of the shooting gallery
For constant practice and training, a base is needed. First of all, you need to decide whether you want to make the base (shooting gallery) your business or use it exclusively for personal purposes.
The first option will entail execution of a whole list of legal documentation, business registration, licenses, weapons certification at the forensic center of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
According to the rules of organizing a shooting range, the minimum length of a strip for shooting is 16 moften put 20 m. Bandwidth per arrow set in 1.5-2 m. In covered shooting galleries, partitions are placed between the bands; in open ranges, you can simply indent a few meters between the borders.
The dash must include:
- Targets Common large targets for archery and crossbow. They can be mounted both simply on a wooden board, and on a board with a straw stack. There should be no people in the space behind the targets during the shooting range. This is an important safety rule.
Photo 3. Target for archery, divided into several zones of different colors. Such goals are set in shooting galleries or outdoors.
- Arrow catching net. She pulls herself at the targets. Instead, you can install a wide wooden shield, which will cover the entire space behind the targets, taking into account the fact that the archer can miss.
- Stock of arrows.
- Spare arrowheads.
- Bow. If your weapon has a pull force less than 27 kilogram-forces, then register it as a throwing weapon is not necessary. Bow with a pull above 27 kg / s subject to mandatory registration.
- Overalls. For shooting, you need to purchase special protection for the forearms and hands, gaiters. It is also recommended to use finger and shoulder protection.
Attention! Non-commercial use of the shooting gallery in private territory is permitted by law, however, responsibility for all possible incidents in the shooting gallery lies with the owner of the land and weapons.
The central governing body for archery, as a sport in the world, is World Archery (until 2013: FITA - Fédération Internationale de Tir à l’Arc - International Archery Federation).
World Archery - the international archery federation, created in 1931 as FITA, unites 140 national federations (2008), headquarters - Lausanne, Switzerland, president - Ugur Erdener (Turkey) (official language - English and French).
EMAU (European and Mediterranean Archery Union) - European and Mediterranean Archery Union. It was founded in 1988.
The most common international disciplines in which the Olympic Games, World and European Championships are held are firing at "FITA targets" from standard distances, which are discussed in the article. Less common are species such as field shooting, skiark (beam biathlon), shooting at curly targets, vertical shooting at targets, also under the auspices of World Archery.
Biggest competitions Edit
- The World Archery Championship (outdoors) is held every two years on odd years.
- The Archery World Cup (outdoors) is held annually.
World Archery (FITA) was established on September 4, 1931 in Lviv, and world championships also began to be held in 1931. By the mid-1950s, standard exercises M1 and M2 were formed, which were included in the program of the largest competitions.
Archery has been an Olympic sport since 1900. In 1900, 1904, 1908 and 1920, the program of the Games included various non-standard disciplines (shooting from 50, 60, 80 yards and others). Since 1924, this species was excluded from the program due to the lack of general rules, and returned back from the 1972 Games with M2 discipline in the individual championship.
In the USSR, archery has become a popular sport since the 1960s. In 1971, Emma Gapchenko became the world champion for the first time; large centers for the development of this sport appeared in Moscow, Central Asia, Transcaucasia and Transbaikalia. The Soviet athletes achieved the greatest success at the Olympic Games in Moscow, where Ketevan Losaberidze became the champion in the individual championship in women.
Since the mid-1980s, new rules have been introduced in archery designed to add entertainment and dynamism - duel fights in the Olympic system. Since 1988, team competitions have been added to the program of the Olympic Games. In the 1990-2000s, the rules are constantly changing. After the 2008 Olympics, a further change is planned, which will make archery closer to biathlon. Scoring will be done on a “hit - missed” basis.
The strongest archers in 1950-1980 were part of the US team. Currently, the leadership in this sport belongs to the athletes of the Republic of Korea, USA, China, Italy.
Personal credit Edit
|1972||Munich||John Williams (USA)||2528||Doreen Wilber (USA)||2424||M2|
|1976||Montreal||Darrell Pace (USA)||2571||Luanne District (United States)||2499||M2|
|1980||Moscow||Tomi Poikolainen (Finland)||2455||Ketevan Losaberidze (USSR)||2491||M2|
|1984||Los Angeles||Darrell Pace (USA)||2616||So Hyangsun (Korea)||2568||M2|
|1988||Seoul||Jay Barrs (USA)||338||Kim Sunyeong (Korea)||344||M1 + 36xM1|
|1992||Barcelona||Sebastien Fleu (France)||110||Cho Yoonjong (Korea)||112||M1 + 12x70m|
|1996||Atlanta||Justin Hush (USA)||112||Kim Gyeongyuk (Korea)||113||72x70m + 12x70m|
|2000||Sydney||Simon Fairweather (Australia)||113||Yoon Mi Jin (Korea)||107||72x70m + 12x70m|
|2004||Athens||Marco Gallazzo (Italy)||111||Pak Songhyun (Korea)||110||72x70m + 12x70m|
|2008||Beijing||Victor Ruban (Ukraine)||113||Zhang Juanjuan (China)||110||72x70m + 12x70m|
|2012||London||About Jin Hyuk (Korea)||Ki Bo Bae (Korea)|
Team Event Edit
|1988||Seoul||Korea||986||Korea||982||3 x M1 + 3 x 36 x M1|
|1992||Barcelona||Spain||238||Korea||236||3 x M1 + 3 X 9 x 70 m|
|1996||Atlanta||USA||251||Korea||245||3 x 72x70m + 3 X 9x70 m|
|2000||Sydney||Korea||255||Korea||251||3 x 72x70m + 3 X 9x70 m|
|2004||Athens||Korea||251||Korea||241||3 x 72x70m + 3 X 9x70 m|
|2008||Beijing||Korea||227||Korea||224||3 x 72x70m + 3 X 8x70 m|
At World Archery's official international competitions, the following types of bows are used in target shooting:
- Olympic or classical (Olympic or Recurve bow). The tension is about 15-20 kg. Boom flight speed reaches 240 km / h.
- Blocky (Compound bow). It uses a special mechanism that provides a more correct acceleration of the arrow and a greater bow tension force with less retention by the athlete. The tension is about 25-30 kg. Boom flight speed up to 320 km / h.
Other important archer accessories are:
- set of arrows and quiver,
- release (breaker) - a device releasing a bowstring on a block bow,
- gait, protecting the left forearm of the right-hander.
The largest international archery competitions are held for various types of bow (block and classic) both indoors (18 meters) and outdoors (30, 50, 60, 70, 90 meters). Standard in international competitions are distances measured in meters.
Shooting is carried out in series of three or six arrows. According to World Archery standards, 2 minutes are given for a series of 3 arrows, 4 minutes for a series of 6 arrows.
Great attention needs to be paid to safety, since a sports bow is a potentially deadly weapon. An inexperienced person is better not to even try to pull a bowstring. It is forbidden to direct the bow (even without arrows) at people. It is forbidden to shoot vertically upwards, anywhere. You can start shooting and follow the arrows behind the targets only on the instructions of the judges or the persons responsible for conducting the training.
Shooting is conducted on standard World Archery targets. Paper targets consist of concentric circles of different colors. The sizes are given in the table. The target size for the Olympic distance of 70 meters is 122 cm.
Inside the “tens”, there is also another “inner ten” (zone X) of half the diameter (for 122 cm of the target, tens of 122 mm and inner tens of 61 mm). The hit of the arrow in the top ten is taken into account in disputed situations of equality of points, it is written in the participants' cards as X. Targets are mounted on shields made of such material that the arrow after hitting remains securely in the shield, does not collapse or deform and does not pass through it. The angle of inclination of the shield to the ground 10-15 °.
If the shaft of the arrow touches the size (boundary of the circle) at the time of the assessment (the judge evaluates the hits on the shaft, and not by breaking the target), then the athlete receives the greater of the two possible points.
Each puncture with an arrow on the target, after the next series, is marked. This is done so that if the arrow passes through or does not penetrate (bounce) the target and shield, it is possible to distinguish which holes are new and which remain from previous hits.
|Disciplines - enclosed spaces|
|distance to target m||18||25|
|target size cm||40||60|
|Circle FITA-18 (number of arrows)||60|
|FITA-25 circle (number of arrows)||60|
There is a general procedure for conducting competitions. First, qualifications are held, and then, among the remaining athletes, according to the Olympic system, the winner is played. So, in particular, World Championships, European Championships and Russian Championships are held.
Usually this is a FITA M-1 circle (144 arrows) in the open air or a FITA 18 / FITA 25 circle (60 arrows) indoors. In personal competitions, the result of one athlete is taken into account, in team competitions - the sum of all team members.
Disciplines - Outdoor Competitions
|distance to target m||30||50||60||70||90||Total|
|target size cm||80||80||122||122||122|
|FITA-1 circle men (number of arrows)||36||36||36||36||144|
|FITA-1 circle of a woman (number of arrows)||36||36||36||36||144|
Depending on the competition rules, after qualification there are 16, 32, 64 or another number of the best participants (teams) that is a multiple of 2 ^ n. Further among them, according to the Olympic system, the final duel meetings are held one on one:
- Personal 12 arrows at a distance of 70 meters,
- Team 3 team members x 8 arrows (24) at a distance of 70 meters.
In case of equality of points, an additional shootout is arranged.
Olympic Games Edit
At the Olympic Games, 4 sets of medals are played, only in the classic bow and only at a distance of 70 meters:
- Personal (male and female),
- Team (male and female), the team has 3 participants.
Athletes qualify for the Olympic Games according to the results of the season. The rules are constantly changing. At the 2008 Games, competitions were organized as follows.
In qualification teams each of the three members fires 72 shots and, according to the results, 12 teams scatter to the quarter-finals net, and then the winner is played according to the Olympic system (one on one of 8 arrows x 3 team members = 24 arrows).
AT personal In qualification competitions, athletes fire 72 shots each and, according to their results, scatter 64 participants into the 1/32 finals grid, and then win the winner according to the Olympic system (one on one with 12 arrows).