Long distance running, also called a “marathon”, includes running disciplines with a track length of 3 km or more, often conducted in a competitive environment. 3 km, 5 km, 10 km tracks, half marathon, cross-country and marathon races are examples of long distances. To run at such distances, you will need strength, speed, endurance and aerobic power. Based on the foregoing, all those interested in long-distance running should train in an appropriate and adequate way in order to avoid injuries. Follow these tips to prepare for a long run.
The main technical components of long-distance running
Long-distance runs will be successful only if the correct running technique is followed. Athletics in this case establishes strict rules for races. Any runner should be aware that the load on the legs and body should be regular. First you need to make a lesson plan and strictly follow it. Long distance running techniques include correct leg positioning, arm movements, and breath control.
The most important component of long-distance running technique is the correct operation of the lower extremities. Put your feet on the ground with a certain sequence. First, the outer side of the front of the foot touches the ground, after which the foot rolls over its entire surface.
Unlike jogging, in this discipline of long-distance athletics, you can’t put your foot on the heel, as this will not allow you to push your foot off the ground sufficiently hard. If the foot is set correctly, the braking effect of the push forward is minimized, as a result of which the running speed can be maintained.
When pushing away from the surface, the pushing leg should be fully straightened. At the same time, the thigh of the leg, which swings, should quickly move forward to maximize the next push, while the angle of the thigh should be about 50 degrees. Throughout the period of repulsion, raising and lowering of the legs, the head should be kept strictly straight, the gaze should be directed forward, not lowering it to the ground.
Hand Movement Technique
Correctly put the foot will succeed only if the runner will actively work with his hands. Long-distance running means high arm positioning. Hands should be bent at an angle that will be less than with other types of running.
When the arm moves backward, the elbow must move backward, at the end point, straightening outward as much as possible. When the hand moves forward, it is necessary to turn the brush inward, directing it to the middle of the body - as if it is necessary to grab some object in front of you in the air.
Due to the high work of the hands, you can significantly increase the frequency of steps, while at the same time increasing the speed of movement. The medium and long distance running technique differs from the sprint in that the runner's body is located almost vertically, with a minimum forward inclination. It is this position that allows you to get the highest efficiency of the lower limbs.
The breath rit must be strictly coordinated with the frequency of steps. This technique will help you not to lose your breath throughout the distance, and, therefore, prevent oxygen deficiency in the final round when you need to make a finish spurt.
The main difference between long-distance running and simple health-improving running is frequent breathing, which is necessary for a full supply of oxygen to the body. Experts advise using a mixed technique in which abdominal breathing prevails over chest breathing. Such a breathing technique allows you to increase blood circulation and maintain the athlete in proper tone, right up to the finish line.
The importance of proper preparation for long-distance running
To show record results in this discipline of athletics, you must have a solid track record of training. Long workouts allow you to develop the right running technique, develop speed qualities, increase endurance and the ability to tolerate high loads.
Preparing an athlete for long-distance running will be ineffective if there are no special strength exercises aimed at developing all the muscle groups that take part in the race. Of great importance is tactical training, which consists in the ability to accurately distribute your forces over the entire distance, and also to start the finish spurt in a timely manner. These moments are sometimes decisive in competitions.
How is long-distance running
The long distance race is carried out in several stages. It is very important to start correctly - the result of the competition depends on a successful start. With a high start, the starting position will be as follows: the push leg is located on the start line, the fly leg is two feet behind. The body is inclined to the ground at an angle of 45 ° forward, at this time the legs should be bent at the knees, and the arms should be at the elbows, located in the opposite direction from the legs.
The race begins with the slope of the athlete, then his body gradually begins to straighten. The first 100 m (or more - depends on the length of the distance) is allocated to the starting acceleration. In this segment, the runner must develop the highest speed, which will be higher than the finish speed.
In almost all sections of the distance, the runner moves at a moderate speed, with the body slightly bent forward, while his shoulders are relaxed, the shoulder blades are pushed back. In the region of the lower back, it is necessary to bend a little, but keep your head without tension, exactly. It is impossible to overexert the muscles of the neck of the head, as this will lead to excessive energy costs. Strongly shaking hands is also not recommended - otherwise, the body will roll to the sides, and this will lead to a loss of speed. The shoulder should move in amplitude, which is determined by the height of the elbow joint.
At the finish line, when running a long distance, the technique changes slightly: the athlete makes a speed jerk, while the speed should be maximum for 200 meters. If the athlete’s physical capabilities do not allow such a distance to run at the highest speed, it may be reduced.
Long distance running tactics
In athletics, three types of middle and long distance running tactics are commonly used: quick start, leading and lacerated running.
- Fast start. If the athlete has well-developed finish acceleration, the main goal in the race will be held together with a group of leaders. In tactical combat, it is the runner who most efficiently develops speed on the finish line will win. It is especially important to adhere to this tactic if there are many athletes in the race who are able to show the best results in different segments of the distance. In this case, do not chase leadership before the start of the finish line. You just need to be in the leading group and wait for the start of the finish line.
- Leading. This long-distance running tactic involves taking leadership from the start, or throughout the first laps. In this case, the leader leads the entire group up to the finish line. Such tactics will be optimal for those runners who have well-developed endurance, but a poor jerk of the finish. If it turns out from the very start of the race to provide a certain gap, then at the finish it will be possible to maintain a leading position. The main thing here is to correctly calculate your strength so as not to “drive” yourself long before the last round.
- Torn run. In this tactic, the main task is to exhaust rivals. At the same time, you need to win leadership from the start and dictate the pace to other participants during the race. To do this, a powerful acceleration is performed, which other athletes are not capable of, then slowing down for a short rest and recovery of strength, then again a sharp increase in pace. Following this tactic, most of the rivals who were present in the leading group will soon lag behind it, since such a change of pace takes a lot of energy.
Choosing the right tactic, you need to consider the level of your physical fitness. For example, the tactics of torn running is not accessible to everyone. In order to develop the qualities necessary for its implementation, a special set of training should be carried out, which is not typical for long-distance runners. But this tactic is well suited for those who do not have the ability to finish lightning fast.
Long-distance running is a very special discipline of athletics. To successfully overcome distances and win competitions, you need to know your abilities well, skillfully calculate strength and carefully prepare for races.
Long-distance running technique: the main components
Long-distance running is also called stayer running. Long distances are those who exceed 3,000 meters. The technique of running short and long distances is very different. Initially, you need to understand the importance of regular exercise. You need to make a lesson plan and stick to it. You need to know what the correct setting of the legs, hand movements and breathing should be. Consider these features in more detail.
Proper lower limb performance is an important part of long distance running. You need to put your feet on the ground with a specific sequence. First, the outside of the front of the foot should touch the ground, and then the foot will roll over to the entire surface.
The difference between long-distance running and jogging is that you can not put your foot on the heel - this does not allow you to push enough away from the ground. With the correct setting of the legs, the braking effect of the push is minimized, which allows you to maintain the momentum.
Based on the surface you need to fully straighten the push leg. Simultaneously bthe leg of the swinging leg should move fastto maximize the next push. The angle of the hip should be approximately 50 degrees. During the entire period of repulsion of the legs, their raising and lowering you need to keep your head clearly straight and look forwardwithout dropping down.
You can correctly put your foot only if you are actively working with your hands. When running long distances, you need a high setting of hands. You need to bend them at a smaller angle than with other types of running.
When moving your arms back, it is necessary that the elbow moves back, and at the end point it is maximally straightened out. When moving your hand forward, turn the brush inward and point it toward the middle of the body, as if you want to grab an object in the air in front of you.
High work of hands allows to significantly increase the frequency of steps and at the same time the speed of movement. Unlike sprint themes, the medium and long distance running technique suggests that the athlete’s body is located almost vertically, leaning backward minimally. It is thanks to this pose that you can get the maximum efficiency of the limbs.
To achieve good results in long-distance running, you need to train a lot and for a long time. Thanks to this, the correct long-distance running technique is developed, speed qualities develop, endurance and ability to endure large loads are improved.
Training should include strength exercises, working out all muscle groups involved in the race. Tactical training is also important. as well as the ability to accurately distribute their forces over the entire distance and start the finish spurt on time. If we talk specifically about the competition, then these points are a priority.
How is long-distance running
Long-distance races are held in several stages. The right start is very important - it is he who determines the results of the competition, if we are talking about them. A high start assumes this starting position: the push leg is on the starting line, and the fly leg is at the back at a distance of two feet. The body is inclined to the surface at an angle of 45 degrees forward, and at the same time the legs should bend at the knees, hands at the elbows, being in the opposite direction from the legs.
The start of the race involves the athlete's inclined position, and after the body it gradually straightens. The first hundred meters, or more, depending on the distance, account for the starting acceleration. In this segment, the runner needs to develop a maximum speed that is higher than the finish speed.
Almost all sections of the course moderate speed. The body is slightly bent forward, the shoulders are relaxed, the shoulder blades are brought back. In the lumbar region, you need to bend a little, and your head should be kept without tension.
At the finish line, the running technique changes a little: the athlete makes a speed jerk and within two hundred meters the speed should be maximum. But if the physical capabilities do not allow the required distance to run at the highest speed, it can be reduced.
Long-distance running: tactics
Typically, athletics use three medium and long distance running techniques. This is a quick start, leading, as well as a ragged run.
- Fast start. If the finish acceleration of the athlete is well developed, then his main goal in the race will be to keep the letter together with the group. With a tactical fight, the one who can maximize speed on the finish line will win. This is especially important during races in which a large number of athletes are involved, having the opportunity to demonstrate the best results at different distances. In this case, do not chase the championship until the finish line begins. The best option is to simply be in the leading group, waiting for the start of the finish line.
- Leading. This tactic involves taking leadership from the very start or in the first few laps. The leader at the same time leads the group to the finish line. Tactics are suitable for those who have a very well-developed endurance, but the finish spurt worked out poorly. If from the very beginning it will be possible to provide a certain gap, the leadership can be maintained at the finish. It is very important to correctly calculate your strength so as not to tire yourself completely long before the finish lap.
- Torn run. The main task in this technique is to exhaust your rivals. Here you need to win leadership from the start and dictate the pace to other participants during the race. To this end, a powerful acceleration is performed, which is beyond the power of other athletes, followed by a slowdown with the aim of a little rest and a set of strength, after the pace rises sharply again. With this tactic, most of the opponents present in the leading group will soon lag behind it, since such tempo changes require a lot of strength.
Much of the long-distance running technique depends on elements such as shoes and clothing.
- Sneakers. Long-distance running shoes are called “marathons”. They are created using special modern technologies that allow you to provide your feet with comfort during the entire race. They are made of light materials with the thinnest sole. These sneakers are flexible, they have almost no difference between the heel and socks. But when choosing a model, it is necessary to take into account not only these factors, but also the weight of the runner, the biomechanics of the leg. In no case do not save on running shoes for a long run, otherwise both your equipment and limbs can be badly damaged.
- clothing. Long-distance running is recommended in T-shirts and shorts made of synthetic materials, since natural ones will get wet and heavy. Products developed with DRI FIT KNIT technology are popular. They are made of superthin materials that provide cooling and maximum elasticity.
- Socks. Professionals usually use compression socks. In addition to comfort, they can improve blood circulation and support the muscles of the legs in good shape.
It is also worth noting such a moment as food. The athlete's body must receive the necessary amount of protein and carbohydrates, which will replenish energy resources. An important nuance is the liquid. Violation of the water-salt balance is a common problem with long runs, since then a lot of water and salts are eliminated through the skin. It is recommended to drink 50-100 ml of fluid every 15 minutes of running. Moreover, to maintain balance, it is better to drink not just water, but isotonic sports drinks, similar in composition to blood plasma.
Long-distance running is a special discipline in athletics. Тем, кто хочет научиться бегать на длинные дистанции, преодолевать большие расстояния и побеждать в соревнованиях, придется много тренироваться, понимать свои возможности, рассчитывать силы и проводить тщательную подготовку к забегам.