Over time, many plants become sloppy. They are not encouraging, but only depressing their owners. Ala restore decorativeness and rejuvenating plants using pruning. Removing and restricting the growth of certain shoots causes plants to develop in a specific shape and direction. For indoor plants, pruning is very important because it allows you to maintain a balance between the ground part of the plant and its root system, the dimensions of which are limited by the size of the pot. In addition, pruning improves the appearance of the plant and stimulates the development of sleeping buds, making flowering more plentiful. In some plants, flowers are formed only on young shoots, so pruning is necessary to enhance flowering.
There are several types of trim: sanitary, anti-aging and shaping. The purpose of sanitary pruning is the removal of weakened old shoots, which often turn out to be easy prey for fungi and bacteria and a nursery for pests. Anti-aging pruning is done to stimulate the growth of new young branches instead of old ones. Rejuvenating pruning is especially needed for those plants that develop long shoots that lose leaves over time. It is also necessary if the shoots are exposed from high temperature or dry air in winter. This often happens, for example, with pelargonium and hydrangea. After anti-aging pruning, a lot of powerful, healthy shoots grow.
When is it necessary to trim indoor plants?
As a rule, pruning is done after a period of dormancy or flowering. It is better not to combine pruning with transplanting, as the growth of new shoots may slow down. Many plants should be pruned annually. Never cut plants at random; be sure to first read the recommendations for each species. Some plants after pruning may not bloom, others without pruning will grow and become ugly. The best time to trim is spring. Pruning is done after a period of rest. Slices are made over outward leaves, otherwise new shoots will grow inward. The cut should be made a few millimeters above the kidney and go from it to the side, slightly obliquely.
What rules should be observed when cropping?
To trim, use sharp and clean tools - pruning shears, scissors or a knife. In plants with milky sap, the slice should be carefully burned with a burning match. Large damage can be sprinkled with crushed charcoal to reduce the risk of infection. It is very important that the cut is smooth, without damage to the cortex and cambium under it, because the growing cambium will cover the wound. Remember that wood is not capable of regeneration, therefore it must be protected. You need to trim the plants over a bud facing outward from the crown so that the branches do not grow inward and are not intertwined. When pruning, moving to a new plant, be sure to disinfect the blade with alcohol, miramistin, or other antiseptics.
What is pinching indoor plants?
Pinching - pinching the top of the shoot with your fingers - is used to enhance branching of very young shoots. They are so gentle that you can do without a pruner. A pinch is also used to enhance branching, since the removal of the apical bud allows lateral shoots to develop. Pinch the plant usually over the first pair of leaves. So that cuttings or young plants branch well and do not stretch up, you need to slow down their growth in height by plucking off the tops of the shoots. It should be borne in mind that pinching the apical kidney does not immediately lead to the development of lateral shoots. Sometimes it takes quite a long time.
In some plants, flowers are formed only on young shoots, therefore, to enhance branching and, accordingly, more abundant flowering, pinching is vital for them. Such a plant, for example, is the "Decembrist" - Schlumbergera cactus (Schlumbergera). Nipping the shoots is recommended after flowering. It is necessary to select the separation point, hold the lower stem segment between the index finger and thumb of one hand, and separate the upper one with a rotational movement. Thus, one or two segments of each stem should be separated. Never cut segments! As a result, flowering will be more abundant, as strong stems will form that can carry more flowers. In addition, a well-formed Schlumberger lives much longer - some specimens bloom and grow for 20 years or more.
How to prune indoor flowers?
It depends on the type of cropping and its goals. In the process of sanitary pruning, dead and drying shoots and, in general, all unhealthy parts of the plant are cut. You need to cut the shoot down to healthy tissue, if the shoot begins underground, it must be removed to the very base. With anti-aging pruning, 3-5 buds are left on the shoot. Of these, new, strong shoots will later develop. Do not spare the pruned branches: the more radical the pruning, the more actively the remaining shoots will grow. It doesn’t matter if you remove up to 90% of the shoot length. After rejuvenating pruning, do not forget to feed the plant to provide it with opportunities for rapid growth. Forming trimming allows you to achieve a certain shape. So you can get a compact bush, ball, standard tree, pyramid and other more complex forms. This is the most difficult type of pruning, since for each particular plant and for each form its own order of pruning shoots is needed.
How to form a compact bush?
Many plants look most attractive and develop better, being formed in the form of a compact bush. Such plants include Indian Azalea (Azalea indica), Achimenes (Achimenes), Coleus (Coleus), Balsamine (Impatiens), Beloperone (Beloperone), Browallia (Browallia), Hibiscus (Hibiscus) and many others. To form a bush in a young plant at a height of 6-7 cm, pinch the top of the main shoot. Lateral shoots after reaching a height of 10-12 cm also pinch. When a beautiful bush is formed, it is necessary to periodically pluck the shoots directed inward or cut, it is better at the very beginning of their appearance. An example is azalea. After the first pinch, three shoots are left (they are called 1st order shoots), after the 2nd pinch on each shoot of the 1st order, 2 shoots are left, then with subsequent pinchings the number of shoots left is alternated in this way: 3-2-3- 2 etc.
How to form curly shapes?
Some plants are easy to cut or trim. It is produced without taking into account the branches, and this allows you to form almost any form. There are very few such plants, but still they are. Among indoor plants, they include Boxwood evergreen (Buxus sempervirens), Large-fruited cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa) and Wintering Heather (Erica hiemalis).
Cutting potted vegetation is one of the aspects of caring for them. But also this procedure is very individual. Some flowers should not be touched at all, while others need to be cut regularly. Cutting different parts of the vegetation has its own goals: removing yellowed leaves, dried shoots, creating a certain form for the plant, to help increase bushiness, or abundant flowering, or simply for the purpose of rejuvenation. Pruning is an integral part in the life of most colors. This action is simple, but you should remember about the approach to each individual type of vegetation and about the general rules.
Varieties of pruning home flowers
The pruning procedure is optional, and you can do without it, but as practice shows, most vegetation still needs it. Thanks to this, a decorative and attractive appearance is achieved, health is maintained, the metabolism is distributed correctly, the flower as a whole looks well-groomed and neat, the necessary balance between all parts of the vegetation is maintained. By doing such simple manipulations, we help to reveal our natural beauty to our green favorites.
There are several types of cropping potted flowers, depending on what goal you set for yourself:
- sanitary removal, removal of excess shoots and leaves,
- carapace and pinching,
- decoration of the crown of vegetation,
- slices to rejuvenate the flower.
One type of plant needs a single type of circumcision, and the other all listed. But you do not need to do everything at once. Carry out only the procedures necessary at the moment.
We make a cut of green pets correctly
Before proceeding with this procedure, it is necessary to study the preferences of each flower individually, and then proceed based on their preferences. Some species can die even from a simple shortening of the stem. Other specimens respond very well even to very frequent shearing. In addition to viewing information on potted crops, it is also necessary to conduct an inspection of the flowers themselves, for damage, dead shoots, whether growth and development are good. All this will help determine what degree of trimming is required and on what scale.
It is necessary to study the preferences of each flower individually
Systematic cropping will help simplify all care steps. Care must be taken to avoid the need for slices. It is necessary to constantly maintain regular decorativeness and perfect shape, to prevent growth or, conversely, a complete discharge of foliage. All timely procedures can eliminate difficult pinching. Sanitary disposal is carried out every year, during a period of active growth, and then, as necessary, in order to maintain proper vegetation. A rejuvenating haircut does not need to be done separately; this procedure is carried out in conjunction with other cleanings in an emergency or systematically.
In order to correctly perform removal actions, it is necessary to observe some rules that can be correlated with the norms for garden vegetation. The general and main task is to take all necessary measures to maintain the health of the flowers.
Basic norms for cutting potted crops:
- The tools that you carry out the procedures should be well sharpened. No need to expose green pets to additional stress,
- Hygiene is important in caring for pets: clean hands, tools, and surface. Disinfection of the instrument is mandatory before proceeding with the removal of parts of the plant. In addition, you should be most careful when working with very sensitive colors and with poisonous home specimens. Protect the skin of the hands, as well as the surface and protect the plants themselves,
- Plan for separate pruning for pruning and transplanting, although it is recommended that these activities be carried out together for a large number of varieties of vegetation. But this is not worth doing, because the flower must adapt after the transplant in order to be ready for cutting. In fact, this is a lot of stress for the whole vegetation, it is harmful, so leave time to rest. There is no point in risking, because otherwise you will destroy the plant, and such sacrifices are not needed at all,
- Slicing should be done correctly, it is done at an angle, above the level of the kidneys, remember this rule. If you decide to make a complete removal of the stem, then this is done at the base, at ground level or at the branching point. A partial cut should be made 3-7 mm above the kidney. Conduct a careful examination of the kidney, they will tell you how to properly orient the growth of green pets - up or to the side. There is also a rule that potted vegetation is trimmed so that new stems begin to grow outside, not inside the bush, which means that the cut should be made from the kidney,
- There is no definite time period when it is necessary to make a cut of a plant, for this it is necessary to take into account many different factors, but the most important is the individual needs of a single instance. In general, this procedure is carried out in the spring, or in an active stage of growth, since the upcoming summer period will give strength after dramatic changes. But this rule works, again, with an eye on the age of the flower and the stage of its development.
- During the haircut periodically stop and look at the result from the side. This activity is fascinating and you can overdo it. Therefore, if you want to form a crown of a flower, get distracted, step back, evaluate where you need to cut it and get to work further, but with interruptions.
Another important point in the section of vegetation parts is the processing of the removal site. After all, all mechanical manipulations undermine the immune system and weaken vital activity. That is why the treatment of wounds and their disinfection is important. You will need appropriate finished preparations in the form of balms, powders, which cover the cut line on garden, greenhouse and home crops. Folk remedies are also effective, for example, crushed coal, sulfur. Cover the wound should be completely, without spaces. Optimal processing is carried out two times or more, as needed. If a plant with such damage gives a lot of juice, you need to give it time to dry out a little.
After you have trimmed, allow time to adapt to the new state. To do this, create light conditions for them to recover: protect from heat, direct sunlight, monitor air humidity. Water the flowers carefully and in moderation, extremes in this state are not needed, adhere to the recommended norms. Feed the soil with food, this will speed up the process, but only after it resumes growth again, and if for a long time there has not been a transplant to another tank with a change of soil.
What tools to choose for removal
In any case, pruning should be carried out exclusively with sharp and sterile instruments. You can use a garden knife if the branches are thin and small, but you can also use ordinary knives, including office knives. For delicate work, it is better to give preference to a blade or scalpel. But in most cases, scissors are used to adjust the length of the shoots or remove excess leaves of vegetation. But ordinary scissors: stationery or kitchen, can cause irreparable harm to plants. Therefore, pinching is best done with tools. If you decide to just form a decorative crown of flower culture, then it is better to use a special tool for bonsai, or narrow small scissors. If the plants are fleshy or with partial woodiness, it is better to use a well-sharpened garden pruner or similar tool, but smaller, especially for home flowers.
Trimming should be carried out exclusively with sharp and sterile instruments.
Such a tricky set of devices like a pruner and scissors is universal and suitable for specialized care for species of different masses.
Any tool that you use for this procedure should be systematically sharpened and disinfected. A dull object will tear the tissue of vegetation, which is not permissible, since healing can last a very long time, which in turn threatens a great susceptibility to diseases. Disinfect devices after each plant to prevent the transfer of harmful microbes from one instance to another. The optimal processing method is to wipe with alcohol, then dip in boiling water.
Absolutely all instances growing at home, including those with reduced stems, go through this procedure. The simplified name is stripping, as dried, dead shoots, leaves are removed. These are measures necessary to maintain the health and strengthen the immunity of flower crops, as well as to prevent the appearance and spread of infections and harmful insects.
What can be achieved with this procedure:
- stems incorrectly growing inward, lifeless, weak, damaged or dead, are removed
- the crown is freed from dry and yellowed leaves,
- dry buds and obsolete peduncles are removed.
There are no exact criteria for sanitary cutoffs. The dried parts of the vegetation are removed at the base, if they are not completely damaged, then the dead segments of the stem are removed to leave untouched tissues. The weak processes are removed, the leaves scorched by the sun's rays are also completely cut off, the dry edges are also subject to removal, only a small dry part remains in front of the healthy part of the leaf plate. Buds and inflorescences are removed to the level of the upper leaves, or to the base.
Cleaning of vegetation is carried out after a period of complete rest, when the growing season begins. Делается удаление в течение всего сезона в случае необходимости и во время активного цветения и сброса листвы, если растение относится к такому виду.
Метод санитарного обрезания сопровождается убиранием верхнего слоя грунта, опавшей, пожелтевшей и сухой листвы и обязательное удаление всех растительных остатков. If the soil is unusable or heavily clogged, then it is worth removing all its free part and replacing the substrate around the lump of the root system with fresh.
Suspension removal options are very simple. Removal of growth points and shortening of shoots are carried out throughout the active vegetation in order to limit the plant from abundant growth, to promote the growth of extreme branches, as well as to strengthen and prolong flowering. All of the above effects are reduced to two banal operations - removal of the tops of shoots and thinning buds. These manipulations are the simplest and easiest, able to form crowns and restrain vegetation.
Suspension removal options are very simple.
Pinching with your fingers is aimed at removing growth points, upper foliage, as well as the upper part of the stem of cacti or succulents. And if you remove after the flowering period 2 parts from each stalk of the Decembrist, the next flowering will get a more saturated color. The same procedures with deciduous representatives will give the result in the form of dense growth of one plant. Finger pinching of buds is needed for large-flowering specimens, it is required in order to reduce the quantity, to achieve good flowering quality of the remaining buds. All this is necessary to maintain decorativeness and naturalness.
Tasks performed when applying the shell:
- when removing the upper growth points, the development and growth of young and productive stems is stimulated,
- ordinary, non-traumatic for vegetation, manipulations thicken the crowns of flowers,
- You can control the direction of growth, if desired, forming it vertically or horizontally.
Shortening has some differences from pinching. In this case, not only the top of the shoot is subject to removal, but the entire personal part of the plant, which has grown strongly up. Removing 1/3 or ½ part of the entire length, the specimen ceases to stretch and redistributes the forces. So you can keep compact size. This technique works well with indoor vines.
Crowning Forming Crown Of Indoor Flowers
The formation is used to ennoble all perennial varieties of bushes, trees, which, with the help of this manipulation, are given a compact, strict or sophisticated look. If you need density or maintaining the right size, adhere to the form - this is the goal, the direction of which you choose, based on personal preferences.
When forming circumcision, several tasks are performed at once:
- activation for the growth of young and extreme stems,
- stimulation of abundant flowering,
- adjustment of height and shape, removal of excessively long, unproductive branches and small leaves,
- giving a certain shape to the crown, maintaining decorativeness and attractiveness,
- independent giving of deciduous mass a strict form: ball, square, pyramid and others,
- adjustment of large potted flowers,
- adherence to one particular silhouette,
- giving vegetation density and splendor.
All these care measures are aimed at preserving the health of potted crops and giving them an individual style that meets the taste of the owners and their interior.
It is optimal to carry out forming cutting with the advent of spring, when the first signs of vegetation appear, or after it, when the stage of complete rest sets in. For crops with a flowering period, this method is carried out after flowering. Removing all obsolete flower stalks, yellowed and dried parts of flowers, thereby creating the necessary volume, size and silhouette, activating the growth of stems that will give a lush color next season. But as a basis you need to take the natural needs of plants:
- if flowering occurs on young stems, then pruning should be done at the beginning of the growing season,
- if the vegetation gives flowering on the branches of the last season, the formation is not carried out, flower stalks are cut to the first leaves,
- expressed flowers need to be regularly rejuvenated by cutting after flowering.
Formation procedures have certain mandatory stages: thinning, cutting excess and unproductive stems or stripping for sanitary purposes. With the latter, you should get down to business. First, you need to remove all unnecessary and interfering in order to start forming.
Removing all obsolete flower stalks, yellowed and dried parts of flowers, thereby creating the necessary volume
Assess symmetry when forming plants. Uneven growth of vegetation will be a guideline for where you need to remove more to cut off excess. If you decide to create a strict form, it is better to use a template or framework framework. You need to put it on top or attach it, after which you need to cut off all unnecessary. But you can do without such difficulties, if you focus on symmetry.
The procedure is carried out in two ways: thorough or easy correction. Conduct it purposefully to the desired size and silhouette. Cutting of shoots should be carried out at 2/3 of their total length, but watch for the number of buds, the course of growth and the appearance of leaves and how the flower relates to this procedure as a whole. Leave at least 2 buds on one shoot.
The rejuvenating technique is aimed at renewing the deciduous mass in crowns, fast growth and maintaining an attractive appearance. It’s better to expose the procedure to older representatives or fast-growing ones, as well as the vegetation that grows up and throws off foliage at lower levels. The same measures are necessary for plants in unsuitable conditions with inadequate care. You can’t do without rejuvenation if you want copies to please for many years with their beauty, for example, such as hydrangeas or roses, as well as other domestic shrubs. But classic indoor flowers like fuchsia and pelargonium will not refuse such a care.
The time of the procedure depends on the general condition and age. It is better to do this in spring or autumn, after the buds wither. Be that as it may, it is better to carry out rejuvenation during the active period of life, since such methods during the dormant period are fraught with complete extinction of the plant.
- Systematic - if adult shoots are constantly removed and foliage renewed, decorativeness is preserved, only thanks to this type the plant will actively grow, accurately distribute metabolism and have an attractive appearance, emergency pruning and other radical measures are excluded,
- Radical - this technique is intended for flowers that have lost their natural appearance, have been living for many years, or for those affected by the disease and mistaken care. In this case, you should strongly cut the stems and remove most of the bush in order to simulate the growth of new shoots and a thorough renewal of deciduous mass. Such emergency measures require a long recovery, so there will be no quick result. Therefore, it is better to divide the rejuvenation several times than do it all in one go.
Systematic pruning means cutting adult stems to 3 or 5 buds and completely removing the oldest shoots, up to 3 pieces. Young branches will grow to replace it. Radical pruning is a threat to the life of potted flowers, as pruning of the central shoot takes place at ground level, or leave stumps. Before you begin, consider the instance as it develops. In flowers with a central stem or slow growth, an aggressive haircut will lead to complete inhibition of the vital activity of vegetation. And the fast-growing representatives of green pets will give growth, even if they have 2 buds left on the branches.
Another type of trim for rejuvenation can be distinguished regulatory. It will suit those colors that are damaged by low temperatures in the winter. The consequences of this are: unnatural falling of leaves, inhibition of growth or stretching - this is what owners will have to face if they do not observe the temperature regime that is necessary. But its conduct is more gentle than radical measures, its task is to restore the flower and activate the renewal of the crown of leaves. As a rule, unsuccessful wintering ends with sanitary pruning, cut into shoots, leaving 5-6 buds on each, removing only the upper parts.
How to form a standard tree?
A gardening stem is a tree trunk from the ground to the first branch of the crown. In a sense, almost all trees are standard. In a narrower sense, the standard form is a relatively small tree artificially formed (by pruning, grafting). Many houseplants, formed as a standard village, look very attractive. It is convenient to focus on the following sizes: a table village 30-45 cm high, a low village 45-80 cm high and a standard tree 80-105 cm high. A strong rooted stem growing vertically up is taken to form a standard tree. Then the side shoots are removed until the plant reaches the desired height. When this height is reached, the top of the plant is cut off and 5-6 side shoots develop, which will be the top of the standard tree. All leaves on the base of the stem are removed, and then a crown of the desired shape is formed. In the form of a stem, roses, pelargonium, fuchsia can be grown ...
How to form an arc?
Ampel and climbing plants form long shoots that can be launched along a wire arc. In this way, Stephanotis, Passiflora, Bougainvillea glabra, Dipladenia, Jasminum and other plants can be grown. To do this, the arcuate support is carefully inserted into the pot. Then shoots are distributed along the wire, and in some places they are freely tied with a woolen thread or soft braid.
Why do I need to form a crown of indoor flowers
Among the main goals of plant formation are:
- The limitation of the space occupied by the plant,
- Giving the desired shape and attractive appearance,
- Removing ugly, weak shoots,
- Providing access of light and air to the flower,
- Flowering stimulation by reducing the number of shoots and branches draining the plant,
- Ensuring the uniform development of all shoots, the uniform distribution of nutrients between them,
- Stimulating the development of shoots that will give flower buds.
The main methods of forming the crown of indoor plants is pruning, pinching, pinching and garter.
It is often impossible to do without sanitary pruning. When yellow, dry, diseased leaves or shoots affected by diseases or pests appear on the plant, they must be removed as soon as possible.
This need is due to the fact that the weakened parts of the plant are a tidbit for pests and diseases. Therefore, in order to prevent the possibility of fungi, bacteria and insect pests switch to healthy shoots and leaves, it is necessary to carry out sanitary pruning in a timely manner.
In this case, the shoot is cut back to back to healthy tissue, and if it goes into the ground - to its foundation. The dried tips of the leaves, for example, in dracen and palm trees, it is important to regularly prune.
In this case, a small dry strip is left - the healthy part of the leaf remains untouched. If cut off on a living leaf, anyway a dried strip will form at the end and the process will continue. In addition, the risk of infection with fungal diseases increases.