Assimilation dehumidifiers are rarely found on sale today, because they have low efficiency, they are characterized by high energy consumption, and work efficiency depends on the season. The principle of action is the ability of warm air to contain a large amount of water vapor.
Condensing dehumidifiers are more profitable - they are characterized by mobility, autonomy, high performance. The device is similar to the principle of its operation with air conditioning - excess moisture simply settles on a chilled surface. Due to the design features, such dehumidifiers do not remove heat from the room, condensate flows into the pallet, the dried air heats up and enters the room. Such devices are equipped with a hygrometer for precise control of the humidity level in the room. Condensing dehumidifiers are designed to work in rooms where high levels of humidity and temperature are combined (this is inherent in water parks and pools). They can also be used in small rooms. At temperatures below + 10 ° C, such models do not work well.
Adsorption dehumidifiers remove excess moisture due to the ability of adsorbents to absorb it. There is a rotor inside the device (the adsorbent located there is dried by a stream of hot air: + 140 ° C). Unlike other models, the adsorption dryer can work at any temperature, which is in the range from -20 ° C to + 40 ° C. It is effective even at a humidity of 100% and has a high efficiency.
Purpose and functions
Compressor dehumidifiers working due to condensation of water vapor are popular. Moisture falling on the cold surface of the device condenses and then drains into a special container from which water must be periodically removed. This is necessary in order to avoid lowering the air temperature. A number of models of compressor dehumidifiers have a special outlet for connecting a tube to drain water, for example, into a sewer system.
Devices that operate on the principle of condensation have great performance, but in the process they create a certain noise.
Depending on the purpose, dehumidifiers can be:
The key difference lies in their performance. For example, home appliances can absorb up to 50 liters per day, while cleaning the air from dust, and industrial ones “discharge” water in large volumes - thousands of liters daily.
Many models of dehumidifiers allow you to maintain the desired humidity in the room, which is especially important if it contains objects of art and antiquity, and also requires the creation of a certain microclimate for the effective treatment of a number of diseases.
There are two types of dehumidifiers on sale:
- Mobile They have wheels and can be transported from one room to another without any problems.
- Stationary They are mounted on the walls or ceiling.
Depending on the manufacturer, the devices can have a different design, which makes it easy to fit the device into any interior.
Why high humidity is bad
Along with temperature, air humidity is one of the most significant factors affecting the well-being of a person. Unfortunately, in our country it is somehow not customary to think about it, although in other countries much attention is paid to the regulation of water vapor in the air. First, let's determine what level of air humidity is considered optimal.
According to studies, the person feels most well in the humidity range between 40% and 60%. Namely, when the air humidity is in the range of 40-60%, our body most effectively fights infections transmitted by airborne droplets, such as flu. In this range, the protective properties of the human respiratory system are activated, mental activity improves, the heart works with minimal overload, etc.
But not only our body suffers from a lack or excess of air humidity, too much water vapor negatively affects the situation in the house - the cladding and even the building structures themselves may become worthless if they are not designed for such conditions.
And if we are talking about industrial or warehouse premises, then the increased moisture content is even more dangerous, therefore, at some enterprises, one can’t do without reducing air humidity.
Here are just a few of the problems that can occur in waterlogged rooms:
- the appearance and spread of mold and other fungal organisms,
- swelling and deterioration of wooden structures, such as floors,
- corrosion of metal structures,
- moisture penetration into computer equipment, other devices and mechanisms, the occurrence of short circuit risks,
- the occurrence of a risk of injury due to the formation of sagging and puddles on the floor,
- reduction of thermal insulation properties of building and finishing materials,
- the occurrence of a risk of defects in technological processes in the workplace,
- freezing of open sections of ducts,
- deterioration of consumer qualities and damage to goods in waterlogged warehouses.
This list goes on and on.
What are dehumidifiers
There are at least two traditional ways to combat waterlogging: opening windows or airing, and the use of heating appliances. The latter method is characterized by high energy consumption and a significant risk that the room can be easily "dried up", which is fraught with other problems. And ventilation as a way to combat high humidity has at least three big problems:
- street air will not necessarily be dry, it may also contain too much moisture, and therefore this measure will simply be ineffective,
- with the departure of moisture through the window, valuable heat is also lost, which increases heating costs,
- finally, in industry there are technical processes that require special conditions for the quality and parameters of the air, so it’s impossible to “open the window” there in principle.
Fortunately, today there are many models of special devices available on the market, the purpose of which is to reduce excess humidity to the optimum level - air dryers. All dehumidifiers are conventionally divided according to their scope into:
Stanislav Shary, Brand Manager NeoClima Companies
“NeoClima dehumidifiers have the widest range of dehumidification. This range is from 10 to 1500 liters per day, which allows you to successfully solve even the most complex tasks. But only professionals can choose the desiccant you need.».
- household air dryers
- industrial dehumidifiers.
According to the principle of action, they distinguish:
According to the design, dehumidifiers are:
Here are the main types of dehumidifiers. It should be noted that this division is largely conditional. For example, industrial dehumidifiers are often used in everyday life as an element of the general ventilation system.
Where are air dryers used
There are a lot of places where you can find dehumidifiers. Household dehumidifiers are often bought by those who live in humid climates with frequent rainfall, as well as those who are forced to live in basements or vice versa, under the roof itself.
Most often, air dehumidifiers are installed in private homes, but it must be emphasized that recently there has been an increased demand for air dehumidifiers for an apartment. Apparently this is due to the appearance on the market of less expensive and more economical and easy to use models. The existing model range makes it possible to buy an air dryer for people with almost any income level.
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Nevertheless, household dehumidifiers are not yet in all homes. But industrial air dryers are almost indispensable:
- in production rooms where humidity is critical,
- in warehouses, granaries, archives,
- in museums, galleries, exhibition halls, libraries,
- in hospitals and clinics,
- in pools and saunas, in gyms and water parks,
- in basement and semi-basement work rooms,
- at construction sites - to ensure the quality of finishing and other construction work.
There are also special dehumidifiers of compressed air. As you know, compressed air is widely used in various technological processes. For example, with the help of a pneumatic drive, the doors of public transport are opened. But the air that enters the compressor always contains a significant amount of water vapor.
During the compression of the air mixture, the concentration of this vapor occurs, which leads to its condensation in the pipes of the pneumatic network. With all the unpleasant consequences that follow from this. Therefore, before supplying air to the compressor, it is necessary to get rid of excess moisture, and compressed air dehumidifiers or air dehumidifiers for compressors are responsible for this. Most often, a refrigerated air dryer is used to drain the compressed air.
Separately, it must be said about the dehumidifier for the pool. This type of equipment is indispensable in any room where there is an open water mirror and where air humidity should be carefully controlled in order to achieve optimal comfort.
Assimilation air dryer
This type is used almost exclusively in production, when it is required to drain large volumes of air. The operation of an assimilation-type air dryer is to ensure constant air exchange, as a result of which moist air is removed from the room, giving way to drier air supplied from the outside.
The main disadvantage of this dehumidifier is the fact that it is the least energy-efficient of all types. The fact is that together with the heated air being removed, a lot of valuable heat is thrown “into the pipe”, plus the energy costs for processing the supplied air must be added. In addition, the assimilation dehumidifier simply will not work in areas where there is a constant high level of humidity, for example, on the sea coast.
Adsorption air dryer
Adsorption dehumidifier, along with condensation, is one of the most common types of dehumidifiers. The principle of operation of an adsorption type air dryer is based on the ability of certain substances to absorb (adsorb) moisture directly from air. The most well-known substance for consumers with similar properties is silica gel, which, probably, each of us saw in boxes with new shoes - such small bags.
True, it is not enough to simply absorb water vapor, as the adsorbent material must be periodically released from the collected moisture in order to return water-absorbing properties to it. Most often in adsorption air dehumidifiers, special rotating drums or rotors are used to ensure a cyclic absorption-regeneration process. The drum is most often made of profiled aluminum, forming axial capillaries, the surface of which is covered with a moisture-absorbing substance.
Wet air passes through such a rotor and leaves excess water vapor on it that is adsorbed, and the air leaves the dryer already dry. The rotor is driven by an electric motor, which ensures its rotation. It should be noted that moist air is supplied only to part of the rotor surface - one of the drum segments is not involved in this process.
It is in this segment that the process of selection of excess moisture from the absorbent material takes place to restore its performance. For this, a counter flow of air heated to 120 ° C is supplied to this segment, which “collects” the accumulated moisture. Received moist warm air is discharged outside the drained room. And the rotor is again ready to go.
It is important that the adsorbent composition of the rotor can withstand a significant number of adsorption-regeneration cycles. Steam, electric or gas heaters are used to heat regeneration air.
An adsorption air dryer is less effective than a condensation dryer, but, unlike the latter, it is able to drain air that has a low temperature. Therefore, devices of this type are used to drain cold rooms. For example, cold stores or ice arenas.
Perhaps this is the most common type of dehumidifier. The principle of operation of a condensation air dryer is based on the property of air to independently get rid of excess moisture during cooling. When cooling the air, the maximum possible amount of moisture that it is able to contain is reduced, and excess moisture falls out in the form of condensate.
Each of us is probably familiar with this physical process. It is because of this that morning dew forms - the air cools overnight and condenses the excess moisture in the form of water droplets. As you can see, everything is very simple.
Therefore, the main task of a condensation air dryer is to cool the air to be dried. Air cooling in such a dehumidifier occurs in the same way as in a conventional air conditioner, so their device is similar. In fact, the condensation air dryer is an air conditioner that does not have the function of removing heat from the room.
Drained air passes sequentially through the evaporator (or cold heat exchanger), where it is cooled below the dew point. In this case, moisture from the air condenses on the fins of the evaporator. And then through a condenser (or hot heat exchanger), in which the dried cold air is heated and then removed from the dryer with a temperature slightly higher than it was at the inlet. The accumulated condensate is either collected in a special container, or discharged into the sewer.
This is the most effective and inexpensive way to drain the air. But also having its drawbacks. Condensing air dryers have a limited range of operating temperatures, since if the air temperature in the room is already quite low, it is simply impossible to cool it even more - condensed water will freeze.
Read more about the device dehumidifiers here.
Air Dryer: Operating Rules
Each of these types of air dryers has its own characteristics, but there are general rules for operation. Where to have a dehumidifier? First, you can install the device in the most problematic area, and later it should be moved to the center of the room (this increases the efficiency). Leaving the doors between the rooms open, you will ensure the natural migration of air and its full drainage. The dryer must be on a level surface. Some models can be mounted on the wall, under the ceiling or in ventilation shafts. The device must not be exposed to direct sunlight. Air inlet and outlet openings must not be closed. Care must be taken to prevent children or pets from tipping over the appliance.
If you plan to use the device for quick drying of linen, then this process is recommended to be carried out in a small room (in winter it should be well heated). Windows and doors must be closed. The linen should be located at a distance of about 40 cm from the appliance (not closer). Liquid must be avoided in the desiccant.
Insert the plug into the outlet (a separate line must be provided, extension cords are undesirable). If your model is a condensation type, then you need to check the correct installation of the condensate collection container. Turn on the appliance with the button and select the desired mode (usually Normal, Maximum, Minimum, Laundry modes are provided). The first mode (Normal) provides air drainage to a humidity level of 60%, the second (Maximum) - to a level of 40%. Laundry mode is used to dry clothes (humidity level 40%). The Minimum mode provides air drainage to the level of 80%.
Air Dryer: Safety Precautions
• Before turning on the device, make sure that the cord and plug are not damaged. After completion of work, the device must be disconnected from the power supply.
• The life of the device can be extended by using air filters and monitoring their cleanliness. Without filters, dirt can enter the device and interfere with its operation.
• Instrument repair should be entrusted to a service center. Cleaning should only be carried out after disconnecting from the power supply.
Causes and effects of high humidity
Most often, a person can detect increased humidity in the room according to his feelings. If there is a need to measure this parameter, you can use a device called a hygrometer. His testimony should ideally be in the range of 40-60%. If you want to drain the air in the apartment, you must first find out the causes of dampness.
Causes of high humidity can be:
- Errors in home insulation,
- Ошибки, допущенные при установке пластиковых окон,
- Наличие в доме таких крупных резервуаров с водой, как джакузи или бассейны,
- Неправильно спланированная или вовсе отсутствующая вентиляция,
- Отсутствие на кухне вытяжки.
Результаты таких просчетов не заставят себя долго ждать. Owners of such houses often observe the following consequences:
- Fogging and moisture on window panes,
- The appearance in the house of fungus and mold,
- Quick failure of furniture and building structures (especially wooden),
- Even indoor plants can suffer from moisture present in the air in too much.
The principle of operation of the air dryer is as follows. The fans that it is equipped with, inject the air mixture into the device. It contains a radiator, the temperature of which is maintained at a lower level than in the room. Condensation occurs due to the resulting temperature difference. The resulting moisture enters a special tank. According to this scheme, air drainage is achieved. Then it heats up and in this form it goes back into the room.
Attention! Using a dehumidification system, make sure that forced ventilation is present and functioning properly.
Devices with excessive power will drain the room quickly, and will easily maintain the desired microclimate in it. But the flip side of the coin is that with increasing power, the noise level also increases.
For an approximate calculation, you can use the ratio:
If the area of the room is 20 square meters, then multiplying it by 0.7, it turns out 14 liters per day. In this way:
- for small rooms of 6-12 square meters, devices with a drainage intensity of 10-20 liters per day are suitable,
- for 14-20 square meters - 20-30 liters per day,
- for 15-28 square meters - 30-40 liters per day,
- more than 30 square meters - 40 or more liters per day.
According to destination
Most often used as a dehumidifier for a house or apartment, for a garage or cellar, for an office or retail outlet of a small size. Often used an air dryer for the basement. Typically, such devices are small in size, making it easy to move them from one room to another. Some models have an interesting design that allows you to organically fit them into the interior. Their productivity, as a rule, is limited to 12 liters of water per day.
Industrial dehumidifiers are used in the industrial sector. They are absolutely indispensable in laundries. Industrial dehumidifiers are also widely used in the construction field due to their ability to significantly accelerate the drying of building and finishing materials. The performance of such systems can reach thousands of liters of water per day. Their feature is the ability to work at low temperatures.
Rooms with particularly high humidity also require drainage. These include pools and water parks. To dry a room of this type can only devices with the highest performance.
When choosing a dehumidifier, the convenience of its use is also taken into account.
By installation method
The installation of a dehumidifier can be stationary or mobile. The stationary is installed in a specific place.
Important! Never install a dehumidifier near a radiator. If possible, it is best to install the device as close to the middle of the room as possible. This improves air circulation.
A mobile device is selected, if necessary, to dry the air in various rooms.
Way of working
The principle of operation of dehumidifiers also varies.
Devices can operate due to:
- Assimilation - the intake of dry air outside the building and the withdrawal of wet outside,
- Adsorption - passing air through special substances with a drying effect,
- Condensation - lowering the temperature of the drained air inside the device.
Having decided to purchase a similar device, pay attention to the following parameters:
- Performance. This parameter shows the volume of the air mixture that the device is capable of passing through itself per unit time. To determine this parameter, you can multiply the area by 0.7. This is a fairly rough estimate, since it is also necessary to take into account the purpose of the room and the temperature inside it,
- Air exchange. Calculated by multiplying the volume of the room by 3 or 4.
In addition to these most important parameters, the following features should be considered:
- Power, which is directly related to electricity consumption,
- Dimensions and weight of the device
Dehumidifiers are also used in vehicles. Desiccant filter replacement is a common problem faced by truck owners. When repairing air dryers, you can purchase a repair kit for the air dryer. Almost all modern trucks are equipped with dehumidifier filters. The functioning of the brakes directly depends on the state of the filter of the pneumatic system. It is better to attend to the purchase of a filter before the onset of cold weather. It is also necessary to remember about timely replacement of a cartridge.
Using dehumidifiers both in your home and in the car, pay attention to ensuring timely care and observing the rules for using the device.
To do this, you can use the ratio:
V = S * H
V-volume (cubic meters),
S - area (sq. Meters),
H - ceiling height (meters).
It is necessary to choose dehumidifiers so that the air exchange parameter is several times larger than the volume of the room. Thus, if the volume of the room is 50 cubic meters, it is recommended to choose a device with an air exchange of 150-200 m3 / h.
Type of management
The main advantage of mechanically controlled devices is the price. Devices with an electronic system are somewhat more expensive, but have a number of advantages.
They are convenient to operate and allow:
- configure the device as accurately as possible and set the required humidity,
- automate the drainage process, thereby increasing the efficiency of the device,
- Quickly select and activate additional dryer functions.
Many manufacturers produce dehumidifiers with the function of air ionization. This option allows you to artificially create in the room an increased concentration of negative air ions, which are often called "air vitamins." In nature, they are found in forest and mountain areas, where breathing is easy and pleasant. The ionization system makes the air in the room just as fresh and pleasant, and with the systematic use of the ionization function, a pronounced healing effect is also observed.
A number of dehumidifiers has a hydrostat, which makes the devices not only convenient during operation, but also economical. The main function of the hydrostat is to control the operation of the device depending on the humidity in the room. With its help, you can set the optimal value, thereby preventing overdrying of air. This allows you to significantly save energy consumption, because it automatically turns the device on and off depending on the programmed humidity, which means that the device does not work for nothing.
Some devices have auto restart. This function is convenient if the house is often cut off electricity or there are voltage surges. When the network is restored, the dehumidifier turns on automatically and continues to work in the set mode.